The 7 great pyramids are a family story, still a child, the future pharaoh saw the construction of his father’s pyramid, then he accompanied him to his last home, the technical teams made mostly of noble lineage accumulate the information on methods and tools from generation to generation, which worked well, however did not stop new ideas to increase performance and reduce the labour cost…
Thus we can see that starting from pits topped by a mastaba used formerly, the first pyramid totally innovated in the design of the royal tombs, bringing 3 concepts that will be found in all the following, up to the pyramid of Mykerinos:
- Stones raised by floats in vertical wells.
- Placement of the mortal remains of the king in height in the core of the pyramid.
- Staged a false mortuary chamber down at the end of a descent (as before, then after the 7 pyramids).
By observing these pyramids, we can see that although they are well sealed and hidden or made up in funerary chambers, the vertical wells are there to prove that this three part model was applied in the 7 pyramids, but each time with specific arrangements, the most obvious of which is the increase in size.
The pyramid of Cheops did not come on the Giza plateau from scratch, it is the heiress of a line of 4 pyramids that preceded it, so it contains in it the DNA of its lineage .
However a careful analysis of the architecture of the chambers and interior galleries leads to note that it brings a decisive innovation with the shift from the submersible lifting floats which one observes in the previous 4 to the oscillating floats.
From Djoser to Mykerinos 150 years have passed 7 pyramids have been built which validates the order of magnitude of 20 years as the construction time of the pyramid of Cheops.
From Djoser to Cheops the size of the pyramids has continusly grown:
Then after the paroxysm of Cheops pyramid, the decay is blazing with the pyramid of Mykerinos only having a tenth of the volume of the great pyramid, after which great pyramids defying time disapeared forever.
In the DNA of the pyramids there is the stone obviously, but while it only takes an energy need of 1/4 KWH to raise an average stone of 2.4 t at the gravity center of the pyramid, it will cost at least ten times more to extract this block from the quarry, so it needs 10 times more workforce.
The major economic problem of the great pyramids was therefore not that of the handling and lifting of stones, but of their quarry out.
On this matter, the archaeological data concerning the great pyramids are totally absent, which has led many authors to propose technologies found in museums, none of which are from the time of the pyramids and which apply all to a craft work, not an “industrial” production of stones by the millions.
To increase the volume of the pyramid from 0.24 to 2.6 MM³, they did not increase the number of stones, but their size, there are as many stones in the pyramid of King Djoser than that of Cheops.
By multiplying by two the edge of the block it multiplies by 4 the staff to cut this block and by 8 the volume occupied by this block in the pyramid. Thus the pyramid of Cheops 8 times larger than the Djoser’s, has cost only 4 times more staff extracting the blocks.
The race for gigantism was therefore the race to find methods and tools capable of extracting and handling larger and heavier blocks.
The only surviving archaeological evidence of this race are the elevators still present in the pyramids (but blocked and staged), the tools of size and transport have (almost) completely disappeared from the surface of the earth.
With very few archaeological evidence from that time, it took me an intense work of recreating these tools on the basis of functional re-design from the archaeological remains found, whether for transportation or quarrying.
From the pyramid of Meidoum to that of Cheops ALL the “chambers” found have the same attributes whose modifications from one pyramid to another go in the direction of the increase in performance = height of elevation, maximum payload:
Surface of the room which is increasing from 16 M² to Meïdoum, 35 M² in the red, 31 and 42 M² in the bent pyramid, 50 M² upper room of Cheops, 70 m ² lower room + horizontal gallery, and up to 116 M² in the underground cave, 125 m² in the pyramid of Khafre room + horizontal gallery.
This increase in room surface caused a serious architectural problem because a volume under the pyramid is a stone bathyscaphe requiring a “serious” ceiling: corbelled vault or megalithic roof in double slope.
The larger the surface of the chamber, the larger the section of the float, the heavier the load to raise.
The walkways that lead to these rooms, in fact most often made up wells, which are taken as entrances to the pyramids, are only water inlets to feed the wells.
As decently only one burial chamber is enough for a pyramid, when archaeologists have found rooms in addition they were baptized antechambers that like the rooms hide ALL a vertical well.
There is, however, in this series an apparent anomaly, the first Djoser’s pyramid, escaping the “norm”, it SHOWs 11 vertical wells, aligned on the eastern side and a central well, which has been dubbed “well” by the archaeologists and not “room” because its ceiling is not corbelled vault.
Illustration of a camouflage technique of the vertical well in the Meidum pyramid:
Gilles Dormion Jean Yves Verd’hurt Architectural study of the inner arrangement of the Meidum Pyramid. World Congress of Egypt Cairo, March-April 2000
what is visible today in the pyramid:
“burial” chamber and two small antechambers
What G.Dormion and JY.Verd’Hurt discovered:
Above the lintels used as ceilings with two volumes of section 2.65 x 2.1 m, located in the gallery of access of the main room, they found two “small rooms” with corbelled vault, whose base makes the same section and located exactly at the vertical of these “ante chambers”.
The function of a corbelled vault is to protect the volume below from the pressure of thousands of tons of stones placed above.
The geometry of the set is such that the 2 “holes” of 2.65 × 2.1 could not be less than 6.6 m deep, but making a corbeled vault to plug a deep hole of 6.6 m does not make sense, so there is a great height of stones at the top in this section and why not a well 33 m deep as in the pyramid of Djoser?
Like this for example:
Another fundamental “detail”: For the solidity of the structure the vaults were sufficient, the lintels placed below, had therefore no other function than to HIDE the vaults which testify to the refilling of the well just above.
This “camouflage” allowing to believe that chamber connected to the descent = burial chamber, all professional archaeologists have fallen into the trap and 99.9% of the amateurs with them.
But there is one small detail that is wrong, this room is 100% anonymous has none of the attributes of the Egyptian mortuary chambers, no sarcophagus not a single chunk of funerary furniture, and the antechambers didn’t provide as usual, the name and quality of the dead along graceful engravings showing how the life of the defunct was quite and good.
So, why bother to block and camouflage these vertical cylinders?
They give direct access to the real mortuary complex above!
If the great builders who have struggled so hard to build these wonders, piling up millions of stones, in projects of 20 years engaging the best of a kingdom, it was not for at the end to put the dead body of the king in these sad and bare rooms so easy to find, so easy to penetrate.
So try now even having found the wells, to dig a passage and climb in these cages filled with stones that are just waiting to fall on your head, crammed over tens of meters in height! These cages filled with stones provide a more effective protection than the three harrows that are found in the “room harrows” of the pyramid Cheops.
The maximum height of the stone lift is 20 m in the wells of the pyramid of Djoser, to lift the stones to the top, so it needs to have successive stages in height, but what do we find?
One floor in the pyramid of Djoser Height 60 m, miss two.
Three wells in the Meidoum pyramid, if the height module of the previous pyramid had been preserved, they would have been 5.
The red pyramid from this point of view is like Meidoum’s.
Two floors found in the Rhomboidal pyramid, are there three missing?
In the pyramid of Cheops 3 floors are visible that go up stones up to 80 m, it still lacks at least 2.
There is still a lot of things missing in the pyramids that deserve to be searched!
The collapse of the filling of the Meidoum pyramid reveals to us the architectural existence of a central nucleus which gives us two indisputable informations:
The interior volumes are built in a masonry that originates on the base of the pyramid, says otherwise, the inner chambers and galleries do not rest on the filling stones but on a neat masonry that starts from the base.
Consequently, when at any height in the pyramid of Cheops there is a chamber or a gallery, we can be sure that this construction rests on a masonry which extends to the base.
We can see in Cheops pyramid that the interior volumes can go up to 60 m with 3 chambers and 4 galleries, it is curious that the archaeologists have been content to visit the only room found in the Meidoum pyramid which is at the height of the base then that the masonry extends up to 70 m in height.
Is this core masonry an innovation of Meidoum’s pyramid or a legacy of Djoser’s pyramid?
All these pyramids belong to a series built on the same conceptual model physical and psychological, which has evolved over time towards more performance and more complexity keeping the same guiding principles.
The differences in configurations observed from one pyramid to another are indicative that there is still much to be found in the pyramids including ALL the mortuary apartments!