From a plug to roller or tumbler

On the site of the Cheops pyramid, the filling stones in their cumulative journeys made 300 KM per day, round the earth every 6 months and each 5 years a journey to the moon!

An efficient mobility solution was therefore needed to meet this challenge because sleds sliding on lubricated tracks did not do the trick.

For the bipeds that we are, the solution found by nature to make us move on earth is to rotate the body on one leg by making it describe an arc of a circle, while moving it sideways so that the center of gravity remains in the support polygon, then the second leg takes over and so on. In fact our body MOVES IN THE AIR by taking support on the joints of our feet, however with each step, the pivoting on one leg raises our center of gravity, the work to give it this additional potential energy is given by our muscles, from this summit, the body then falls back into a circular path, transforming the energy acquired into kinetic energy, the horizontal component of this energy is recovered for the next step and maintains the speed of movement acquired, the vertical component is lost and is transformed into heat. A small stride is calorie efficient, a large stride consumes.

If a load is portable on a man’s back, it also travels in the air, but its mass increases the calorie consumption accordingly.

When the load is too heavy to be carried, it stays on the ground and the most immediate way to move it is to drag it.

There is a very efficient slip that was used very early on, it is that of a boat in water, a solution that is still current maritime or river, generally reserved for long journeys and very heavy loads, but on a plateau desert, you can forget that.

The other “obvious” solution is to slide the load, usually carried by a sled on a lubricated track, to reduce friction as much as possible. This apparently simple solution consumes too much manpower because the coefficient of friction of the sled on the track is of the order of 0.2 which is equivalent to raising the sled and its load on a slope at 20%.

More demanding in terms of technology, movement on a wheel, on circular rollers, or even on balls divides more than one hundred times the energy consumption compared to the sled.

For the very heavy stones of the pyramids, the solution of the wheel would have been possible at the time although they left no trace of it, except much later with that of the chariots, on the other hand the displacement on circular rollers appears to us in general as more easily accessible and “natural”, but these two solutions had 3 annoying drawbacks,

1- You needed a perfectly clean runway in an environment invaded by sand and rubble from the quarries, otherwise the roller gets bogged down, anyone who has done 4 x 4 in the desert or biking on a beach knows that !

2- It is impossible to change direction a load carried by wheels unless you have the technology of the steerable axle which under loads of up to a hundred tons would probably not have been accessible at the time , when with the circular rollers, they are impossible to orient under load except that they have the unfortunate natural propensity for a yes or a no to get in the way of the progression, blocking it.

3-Impossible to place such rollers and wheels on standby on a sloping track, without a locking device, for example to prevent the load hoisted on a slope from turning back alone in the event of an incident on the traction.

The ball bearing suffered from the same drawbacks, it would however have allowed changes of direction, the ancient Egyptians who accustomed us to the realization of perfect sculptures, would no doubt have been technically capable of making perfect balls, but to manufacture tens of thousands of them. identical would certainly have been too expensive.

It is possible to think that the ancient Egyptians of the Fourth Dynasty, careful observers of nature, chose to copy the solution that mother nature took millions of years to perfect.

MAKE THE STONES “WALK” IN THE AIR SO HEAVY THEY ARE.

Indeed all mammals progress in the air carried on their legs, in a kinematics of rotation / pivoting, passing their weight from one side to the other alternately to let the hind legs come back to the front.

These pivoting lower limbs are articulated on lubricated ball joints allowing rotations.

To copy nature would have been to make a sort of artificial tibia with a candle fitted with two “ball joints” on either side.

candle

The principle is very simple, in a rotation / pivoting movement, this artificial tibia causes the load placed on the upper “plug” to move horizontally with a very slight vertical path, while the lower “plug” rolls on the moving pavement.

bequille

What made me think of that were these curious stones that are found by the thousands in the Petrie Museum in London , under the tag Egyptian weights and measures!

stone pivoting

These stones of all sizes have in common that they have a top in the form of a segment of a sphere and a bottom in the form of a truncated cone, some bear indisputable signs of wear on the spherical part.

wwwopac (4)

In fact  these studs could have been the “kneecaps” of the artificial “tibia”.

To ensure that the rotation / pivoting is only done on one axis, we could have made a “double tibia” which I will now call “culbuto”:

tumble

Let’s take an example to understand why this move is efficient:

Taking into account the size of these studs, we can anticipate that the length of the tumbler is of the order of a “fist” in ancient Egyptian measure, or today 11.2 cm while the diameter of the sphere segment could have been of a “hand” or 9.35 cm.
Let us imagine that the tumbler receives a crutch to maintain it in a stable starting position, which gives it an inclination on the vertical of approximately 27 °, ie a cotangent = SKD of 2, an angle well known in the pyramids.

tumbler 1
By correctly ballasting this stand, it will return the tumbler to its starting position when it is released from the load by having placed it on the next tumbler.
We thus obtain a tumbler which has a stable position.
In this configuration the angle formed with the vertical by the straight line which passes through the upper point of contact and the lower point of contact would be 4.3 °, i.e. a tangent = 0.075 which means that to make the tumbler take off at a standing start it is necessary apply to the top an horizontal force which makes 7.5% of the weight that loads it.
Between the starting point and the high point of the rotation the load rises by 2 mm, while it travels horizontally 4.33 cm of developed due to the rotation of 27 ° of the lower and upper spheres plus a displacement of 1.65 cm due to the 27 ° pivoting of the line which links the two centers of the spheres, i.e. 6 cm of total displacement, so when the tumbler has continued its downstream rotation of 27 ° the load will have returned to the same level horizontal, but will have moved horizontally 12 cm or almost the length of the tumbler.

In this displacement, it was necessary to spend energy to raise the load, for example by 1 t of 2 mm, or about 20 KJ, to obtain a displacement of 0.12 m, which would be the equivalent of an average force resistant to displacement of 20 / 0.12 = 167 KN or 1.7% of the weight of the load.

However, the same load sliding on a track would have presented a resistance of the order of 20% of its weight.

So moving through the air on a tumbler, without energy recovery is already 12 times more efficient than sliding a sled on a track.

The example above is there just for the understanding of the basic kinematics, because in reality one has interest to recover the kinetic energy acquired by the block during its fall.

There are two types of solutions to do this:

  • The studded roller: the studs distributed over a circumference successively take the load in the rotation of the roller.
  • A series of somersaults spread over the track: the next somersault picking up the load brought by the previous tumbler to continue the movement.

1 – Stud roller

For the implementation of this principle in the transport of the stones of the pyramid, I imagined that the builders could have used a roller with 9 studs on the circumference which gives excellent performance.

The problem of building the roller is to get precise geometry, one way to get it is to build the cylinder from segments of 1/9 straight in a triangular shape, for this example it is easy to make. machine with precision, then dig the housing of the studs.

roller segment

The studs can be glued in their housings by resin, the housing of the studs only works in compression, this way of proceeding makes it possible to easily adjust the studs in a very precise manner.

Then, as for the manufacture of a barrel, the 9 segments are assembled and they are held together by a copper ring.

roll9plots

This process makes it possible for heavy loads to use the wood in axial compression which is more resistant than radial compression.

As many rollers as necessary can easily be produced in series with good reproducibility.

The roller does not need to be very big, a diameter of 11.2 cm (6 fingers or a fist) is sufficient, while its length can be of the order of 20 to 30 cm. In stone for the studs and wood for the body of the roller, in these dimensions its weight is around 1.5 to 3 KG

A roller thus formed has, compared to a perfectly circular roller, the double advantage of being easy to produce in all dimensions, for all loads, and of being less sensitive to the surface quality of the progression path because there is has pivoting in addition to rolling and holds still on slopes up to 8%, which the circular roller cannot.

The spherical shape of the contact allows the roller to circulate in a U- or V-shaped groove , so that it is guided and cannot get across like a circular roller.

plotrainuredc3a9tail

The contact of the pad with the groove being at the origin of a point nature, the pressure generated is very high even for low loads.

It is therefore imperative that the material of the groove is less hard than that of the stud, so that the shape of the groove is modified by the pressure and not the stud.

With a diorite or granite stud, a fine limestone or even better copper groove would have been needed.

The copper being ductile, under the effect of the pressure of the stud would have been crushed giving a rolling track in cylindrical shape, with an increased contact surface until the contact pressure becomes lower than the elastic resistance to compression hardened copper.

Thus, by pushing to the extreme, the circulation track can only be made of two grooves, in fact two hollow copper rails, because it is the only place of contact between the rollers and the ground.

The icing on the cake, the contact of the stud on the track being of a punctual nature, the stud roller could follow a winding track which makes turns, not too tight however, which would be impossible with a cylindrical roller.

This property was very interesting because fairly long tracks, 400 m for the pyramid career path, 700 m for the Nile pyramid plain course, posed a problem of the difference in the coefficient of expansion between the copper rail and its limestone support, in making a slightly sinuous S-shaped course, this difference could be absorbed by a slight variation in the radius of the turns and at the same time eliminated the need for expansion joints.

Arbitrarily for the rest of the study, I will take rolls 10 cm in diameter and 20 cm in length, bearing 2 rings of 9 studs, each stud having a sphere radius of 3 cm.

Plot roller

However, if we wanted to take advantage of the very low resistance to forward movement to let the load on rollers move on a sloping track of the order of the % in full autonomy, that is to say to save the labor of work that would have accompanied it, it was necessary to solve the problem posed by the movement of the rollers following the load.

The autonomous skate will provide the solution.

2 – Tumbler

Instead of distributing the pads on the periphery of a cylinder, they would have been directly distributed on the load progression track.

tumbler 2

It can be seen in this example that the tumbler has two upper studs and two lower studs in granite or diorite, embedded in a hardwood body. In the rear part, a counterweight embedded in the wooden body allows the tumbler to return to the starting position once released from the load, a stop gives a precise starting position.

The load rests on the tumbler via a mini copper rolling track whose V-shaped ribs serve as a guide for the studs, a mini track following the same principle receives the lower studs.

The length of these mini tracks is slightly greater than the rolling development of the stud.

Let’s take a concrete case to develop the point:

The diameter of the sphere envelope of the stud would be of one hand (5 fingers) is 9.35 mm and the height of the tumbler which would make a fist (6 fingers) is 11.2cm of overall height, the consequence would be that the angle that would make with the vertical the line which joins the high point of contact with the low point of contact is about 4.3 ° while the tumbler would be inclined by 27 °.

Thus the “take off” force to rotate the tumbler would be 7.5% of the weight of the load it carries.

The tumbler would make a total pivoting of 54 °, the development of the lower part and upper part bearings added to the pivoting of the tumbler would give a displacement of the load of 12 cm per tumbler which is the distance at which we should find the next tumbler on standby to take over the load.

Double culbuto

Thus at the end of its first movement, the load falls on the next tumbler and the kinematics of the movement are exactly the same as with the roller, so the resistance to advancement is identical for the same dimensional configuration.

Obviously to support the load-carrying plate it is necessary at least permanently to have 3 tumblers in charge.

The plate is alternately supported by 2 tumblers on the right and a tumbler on the left and vice versa at the next tilting. It looks like walking from one foot to the other.

For a better understanding the load-carrying plate has been removed from the animation.

Cukbuto 2

After the passage of the plate, the released tumbler tilts only under the effect of the counterweight towards its waiting position, while the load continues its forward progression. As long as there are tumblers on the track, the load can progress by offering very low resistance to forward movement.

When the pairs of tumblers cross, the plate can thus remain in a stable position.

Thanks to the spherical shape of the contact between the stud and its track which is V-shaped, it is possible to rotate the load-bearing plate, the stud then putting itself slightly across the groove, the radius of the circle must be at least 30 times the width of the tumbler, ie approximately 3 to 4 m.

This can be achieved by gradually orienting the tumbler support on the track.

The load resistance of the block is of the order of 500 KG, which means that the plate always carried at least by 3 tumblers so 6 blocks can be loaded at 3 t. Out of 6 tumblers present on the track under the load carrier plate, only 3 are engaged due to the alternating right / left passage.

In the example illustrated, the minimum length of the platform would have been 0.72 m, the width of the tumbler being 0.1 m, it needed two widths permanently engaged, i.e. a floor area of ​​0.15 M² for 3 t with 6 supported studs i.e. a load density of 20 t per M² of platform

For heavy loads, we could have both increased the number of pins per tumbler, or put more tumblers in parallel in the same row and the number of rows of tumblers engaged by increasing the length of the load-carrying plate.

For example for a megalith of 65 t, it would have taken 3.25 M² of plate which was possible with its smaller face which measures 1.5 x 2.8 m.

For 130 loaded studs, we could have had 9 rows of loaded tumblers, ie 7 tumblers in parallel per row and a minimum width of the track of 1.4 m.

When you have so many studs supporting the load, a very important thing was the fair distribution of the load on the studs to avoid breakage, which required great dimensional accuracy of the tumblers. But not facilitating a homogeneous distribution of the load between studs, the fact that the body of the tumbler is made of wood gives a certain capacity for elastic deformation and on the other hand that the base of the tumblers, could rest on a wooden plank of a surface and of a thickness such that under the effect of the load the latter crashes more or less while remaining within its elastic deformation limit, which absorbed the slight dimensional deviations left by the manufacture of the tumblers.

Likewise, in the event of a change in slope of the runway, a very gradual connection would have been necessary so that the elasticity of the base of the tumblers could absorb the progressive inclination of the load.

This change of slope in dimension being carried out by bringing the following tumbler closer so that the plate can “climb” on it while its base is higher, and conversely in descent.

Another practical point, these very heavy loads had a journey of around 700 m to accomplish to pass from the landing dock to the base of the pyramid, but being very few in number, their progression (unlike the filling blocks ) could be very slow, thus leaving available the solution of using a fairly short and modular progression track, which operators could have unwound in front of the load by replacing the released modules at the rear.

On the other hand, for journeys on the base or in the access gallery to the freight elevator or in the path of the filling blocks from the quarries, given the traffic of around 500 blocks per day, tracks would have been necessary. completely filled with tumblers permanently.

With the dimensioning of the illustration, the density of tumblers on the track being 6 for 0.72 m, or 8 per linear meter, there were around 1 km of tracks to fill, i.e. 8,000 tumblers and 32,000 plots!

No wonder there are still by thousand of them in museums.

On heavily traveled routes such as those from the quarries to the pyramid, from the access gallery and the distribution of blocks on the course, it was advantageous to place the tracks on a slight slope so that the loads circulate without human intervention a almost like the mine wagons today.

It would then have been sufficient to raise the blocks at the start of the movement, then to make them accelerate on a launching track, to keep their acquired speed on a track whose slight slope compensates for the resistance to the advance of the tumblers, to the order of the %, to be at the end slowed down by a counter slope, then stopped on arrival.

Except for the end of the path of the blocks on the course which must be abrupt, stopped by a stop, so that the block tilts under the effect of its kinetic energy by falling on its own to its final place.

Conversely in the upward slope at 8% between the Nile plain and the pyramid, the rocking track had the considerable advantage of having a ‘sealskin’ behavior, ie very low resistance. when advancing forward, on the other hand in the opposite direction, the track presents a significant friction between the granite studs and their copper support with a coefficient probably of the order of 0.3 / 0.4, that is to say that it would have needed a slope of 30 to 40% for the load to slide back.

This advantage safely allowed non-continuous jerky traction.

Thus the blocks, even the megaliths outside the access ramp from the Nile plain to the pyramid, could move with a minimum of human handling.

In conclusion, the tumbling option was efficient and fairly easy to implement at the price, however, as always in large pyramids with great precision of execution.

8- Double-rafters of the entrance

In my theory, there is a phase of construction of the pyramid which corresponds to the elevation of the megaliths mainly of the upper chamber and of the mortuary complex, in which they had to vary the level of the water circuit made up of the descending gallery , the lifting well (still to be discovered), the ascending gallery and the horizontal gallery. from 21 m to -12 m approximately.

To empty this circuit, the builders disposed of an evacuation pipe at the 7 m level which became the “Al Ma’mûn passage”, but to further lower this level from 7 to -12 m, the best way was to evacuate the water from the top of the descending gallery = “the entrance”, and to recover it easily thereafter to store it in a tank located at the same level.

The visible vestige of the entrance as well as the volume detected by “scan pyramid” clearly explain to us how this tank could have worked.

There is above the entrance to the descending gallery, a farm in superimposed double-rafters, what we do not see is the vault which has now disappeared which extended these rafters to the north over a length of about 5 m . There is visible the trace of the abutments on which the rafters rested and we can still see the remains of 2 rafters which were broken, so we know their thickness.

Image credit Frank Monnier

It is highly probable that the missing rafters were broken by those who partially dismantled the pyramid, believed to be the workers of Al Ma’mûn.

This vault means that during the construction of the pyramid the space above was covered with building blocks and this vault protected the space below in which human operations could take place.

This space was therefore closed on the north side throughout the construction of the pyramid by the filling blocks covered with the facing blocks. This north wall was to be crossed by a corridor of which we will never know anything, allowing access from the outside to this room and giving it a little light.

To the south of a stack of 3 large lintels that are now visible, the “Scan pyramid” project detected the presence of a void:

Image Credit CEA France

The image above suggests that this volume has two parts, the southernmost one is about 2 m wide by 10 m long which communicates to the north with a wider volume about 4 to 6 m and about 2 m long.

According to CEA observers, the height of this volume would be around 4 m.

The southern part, having about 2 m at its base should therefore rise in corbel in a manner similar to the “niche” of the lower chamber, on the other hand the much wider northern part should be covered by a vault similar to the one whose the vestige is visible at the entrance, releasing a fairly small floor area 8 to 10 M² but sufficient however to allow operators to work. The appearance of this volume seen from the north could resemble the niche of the lower chamber:

A view from the south, removing part of the masonry, shows the rear of the crenellated lintel, cleared of the vault and moved to the west resting on the limestone block of Turah:

Below the crenellated lintel one could discover a sort of “plughole” made of a recess closed by a block, which could have been moved from the north volume using a lever resting on the third lintel.

In the visible part 3 lintels which follow one another by superimposing each other close this volume, these lintels located under a vault have never had to bear a load above, however they are very (too) large, the first lintel measuring 2.8 m high, 3.7 m long and 1 m thick, each weighs about 20 t.

Why this debauchery of material in this place?

The only logical explanation is that they had to contain a force created by hydraulic pressure in the descending gallery which they cover.

In the sequence of elevation of the megaliths, the descending gallery as well as the volume to be discovered were filled with water, the entrance being at the height of 15 m and the water level in the circuit being able to reach 21 m (level of water in the horizontal gallery), these lintels had to contain the pressure of a water column 6 m high.

To hold 6 m of water column it was necessary not less than 6 / 2.5 (density of the stone) = 2.4 m of stone vertically, but this slab being inclined at an angle of 26 ° it was necessary that its height is not less than 2.4 / cos (26 °) = 2.7 m for the first lintel and keep the upper face of the next two lintels at least at the same level as that of the first.

But here again we see that instead of maintaining the level of the following lintels rises, why?

This is because there was behind this wall formed by the 3 superimposed lintels a height of water which could in certain circumstances reach the level 22 m.

So these 3 superimposed slabs must by their weight contain the horizontal force created by the water column contained in the volume to be discovered. This wall being approximately 7 M² the horizontal force which then pushed it towards the north was 21 t, as the lintels are inclined by 26 ° it is necessary that the cumulative weight of the three lintels is not less than 21 / sin 26 ° = 50 t.

The weight did not scare the builders of the pyramid, to say the least, and the mass of the three lintels that can be observed meets the requirement.

The floor of this rear volume to be discovered that can be described as a tank should be horizontal with a slight counter slope to be able to be emptied in full gives in the northern part on a sealing device, a (large) plughole, allowing at will to retain water in this reservoir or by lifting it to let the water from the reservoir flow into the descending gallery.

It is not by chance that in this place G. Dormion (La Chambre de Cheops p 283) observed an open joint around the fifth lintel (from the entrance) covering the descending gallery.

These open joints could have allowed the water contained in the reservoir to flow into the descending gallery.

Access to this reservoir from the now destroyed chamber located in the northern part, could be achieved through the “crenellated lintel”.

We notice embedded in the ridge of the vault a space which has been closed by a lintel bearing notches which show signs of wear generally called the “crenellated lintel” (for a better understanding, the visible vault has been removed from the drawing).

About 3.15 m long, 1.87 m high, unknown thickness but probably around 1 m.

To a depth of 20 to 35 cm, crenellations were cut in this lintel, the function of which remained enigmatic for a long time.

Curiously, this lintel only fits under the rafters of the vault in the southern part by 20 cm which is unusual, it rests on a block of fine Turah limestone, the very smooth horizontal surface of which is pierced with 3 holes of 7 cm in diameter.

I make the following interpretation = we are in the presence of a sliding watertight door!

Here is how to operate this door:

With a lever resting on the third lintel, the most southerly, this crenellated lintel can be pushed back approximately 25 cm towards the south by freeing it from the rafters, the 3 holes could have received copper or granite rods serving from an anchoring point to a fulcrum for a lever which engages in the “crenellations” could have made this door slide in the EO axis by freeing a passage. Obviously we do not know the configuration of the volume in which this lintel could move, but we can anticipate that it would have released a sufficient passage to allow operators access to the tank.

The descending gallery is 1.2 m high, being inclined at 26.6 ° the height of the passage for a man in a vertical position is 1.2 / cosine (26.6) or 1.34 m, a child can stand there easily.

G. Dormion in his analysis of the descending gallery noticed a lintel, the fifth exactly from the entrance, the joints of which are free of any mortar and which is only 75 cm wide. This void around the lintel could well have allowed water to pass between the reservoir and the descending gallery. Probably a plughole (which remains to be discovered) located on the floor of the reservoir above this lintel made it possible to control the quantity of water to be discharged into the descending gallery.

This bung could have been easily operated from the entrance chamber by a lever resting on the third lintel, this lever could have been linked to the bung by a rope passed under rods engaged in holes close to its top like you can see them on the rest of the “harrow” found in the entrance.

Thus with this device, by passing the water from the descending gallery to the reservoir using a chain of buckets, the circuit could be emptied from the 7 m level to the -12 m level, to refill it by then by opening the drain. The section of the lifting shaft being 4 M², it was necessary to be able to store (7 + 12) × 4 = 76 M³ in the tank, which corresponds more or less to the volume detected by pyramid scan.

The piece of broken granite found in the entrance that the consensus of archaeologists qualified as a “harrow” (from the harrows chamber) could well have played the role of a valve to close the descending gallery at its upper end approximately at the height of the first lintel level + 15 m, but all the device that could have gone with it was destroyed by the demolishers.

Indeed, it was necessary to close off the top of the descending gallery at the 15 m level when the water level in the circuit could reach 21 m.

This gate would have been of a width very slightly greater than the width of the gallery and “pushed in” by force by rotation to obtain the seal, then secured by a wedge resting on the north masonry.

The opening of this valve had to be sudden to create a front of depression in the water circuit, this was easy to obtain with a well-placed mass shot which would have made the blockage yielded by friction, after having removed the safety wedge.

** Since the discovery of the “big VOID” by the “Pyramid scan” project, the proponents of the ramp theory have been looking for a secret passage in the entrance which would lead via a hypothetical secret gallery passing above the great gallery to the “Big Void” »Spotted by the scan pyramid project.

They have an absolute need for it, because in the absence of this entrance followed by a secret gallery, the only possible access to the Big Void would be vertically above the masonry, as yet unexplored, which is around the passage behind the niche. of the lower chamber . And by logical consequence there would be a vertical well in this masonry (even without having seen it) and a vertical well in the center of the pyramid causes the total collapse of all the theories based on ramps!

So this sliding door (the crenellated lintel) would be welcome for these theories whose supporters could adopt it immediately after reading this article, as the secret entrance they have always dreamed of.

But twice unfortunately, a “secret” entrance whose opening mechanism is spread out in the eyes of all, it does not look very serious on the part of the manufacturers, although to date thousands of people have passed by without understanding it and the configuration of the void found by scan pyramid , only leaves a horizontal corridor 10 m long, completely unsuitable for leading to the big VOID.

We wonder about the circumstances of the disappearance of the double-rafter vault that covered the entrance, I propose the following scenario:

The demolishers entered the pyramid through the Al Ma’mûn sape, they discovered the descending gallery after having gone through the service shaft, going up it they found it blocked by a granite valve, they did not know what it was behind a much sought-after treasure?

The granite is very hard, they do not have the tools to drill it, they cannot exert sufficient force to break it because the volume in which they are located is too narrow for that, stop, here there is nothing more possible.

They spotted the position of this place and decided to attack it from the outside, that also corresponds to their primary objective, they came here first to take the fine limestone from the facing.

They clear the facing and a few stones from the infill and uncover the double rafters that form a roof.

A good deal is looming because a roof prefigures a secret room so why not a treasure!

The only way to get there was to break this roof to access the room, they start by making a hole to go down into the room, but there was a bad surprise, this room like the others was empty!

Entered from above, the rafters are now unstable, and still constitute a meager booty and are therefore withdrawn and then carried away, the upper part of the chamber having been removed, they broke the remaining north wall to remove the facing stones thus destroying forever this part of the pyramid that it is now impossible to reconstitute.

Their work of destruction does not stop there, they break the device that closed the gallery, now they have space to exert force and break the granite valve to remove it and put it aside so that the gallery descending is clear.

End of episode

2- Pyramids DNA

The 7 great pyramids are a family story, still a child, the future pharaoh saw the construction of his father’s pyramid, then he accompanied him to his last home, the technical teams made mostly of noble lineage accumulate the information on methods and tools from generation to generation, which worked well, however did not stop new ideas to increase performance and reduce the labour cost…

Thus we can see that starting from pits topped by a mastaba used formerly, the first pyramid totally innovated in the design of the royal tombs, bringing 3 concepts that will be found in all the following, up to the pyramid of Mykerinos:

  • Stones raised by floats in vertical wells.
  • Placement of the mortal remains of the king in height in the core of the pyramid.
  • Staged a false mortuary chamber down at the end of a descent (as before, then after the 7 pyramids).

By observing these pyramids, we can see that although they are well sealed and hidden or made up in funerary chambers, the vertical wells are there to prove that this three part model was applied in the 7 pyramids, but each time with specific arrangements, the most obvious of which is the increase in size.

The pyramid of Cheops did not come on the Giza plateau from scratch, it is the heiress of a line of 4 pyramids that preceded it, so it contains in it the DNA of its lineage .

However a careful analysis of the architecture of the chambers and interior galleries leads to note that it brings a decisive innovation with the shift from the submersible lifting floats which one observes in the previous 4 to the oscillating floats.

From Djoser to Mykerinos 150 years have passed 7 pyramids have been built which validates the order of magnitude of 20 years as the construction time of the pyramid of Cheops.

From Djoser to Cheops the size of the pyramids has continusly grown:

Then after the paroxysm of Cheops pyramid, the decay is blazing with the pyramid of Mykerinos only having a tenth of the volume of the great pyramid, after which great pyramids defying time disapeared forever.

In the DNA of the pyramids there is the stone obviously, but while it only takes an energy need of 1/4 KWH to raise an average stone of 2.4 t at the gravity center of the pyramid, it will cost at least ten times more to extract this block from the quarry, so it needs 10 times more workforce.

The major economic problem of the great pyramids was therefore not that of the handling and lifting of stones, but of their quarry out.

On this matter, the archaeological data concerning the great pyramids are totally absent, which has led many authors to propose technologies found in museums, none of which are from the time of the pyramids and which apply all to a craft work, not an “industrial” production of stones by the millions.

To increase the volume of the pyramid from 0.24 to 2.6 MM³, they did not increase the number of stones, but their size, there are as many stones in the pyramid of King Djoser than that of Cheops.

By multiplying by two the edge of the block it multiplies by 4 the staff to cut this block and by 8 the volume occupied by this block in the pyramid. Thus the pyramid of Cheops 8 times larger than the Djoser’s, has cost only 4 times more staff extracting the blocks.

The race for gigantism was therefore the race to find methods and tools capable of extracting and handling larger and heavier blocks.

The only surviving archaeological evidence of this race are the elevators still present in the pyramids (but blocked and staged), the tools of size and transport have (almost) completely disappeared from the surface of the earth.

With very few archaeological evidence from that time, it took me an intense work of recreating these tools on the basis of functional re-design from the archaeological remains found, whether for transportation or quarrying.

From the pyramid of Meidoum to that of Cheops ALL the “chambers” found have the same attributes whose modifications from one pyramid to another go in the direction of the increase in performance = height of elevation, maximum payload:

Surface of the room which is increasing from 16 M² to Meïdoum, 35 M² in the red, 31 and 42 M² in the bent pyramid, 50 M² upper room of Cheops, 70 m ² lower room + horizontal gallery, and up to 116 M² in the underground cave, 125 m² in the pyramid of Khafre room + horizontal gallery.

This increase in room surface caused a serious architectural problem because a volume under the pyramid is a stone bathyscaphe requiring a “serious” ceiling: corbelled vault or megalithic roof in double slope.

The larger the surface of the chamber, the larger the section of the float, the heavier the load to raise.

The walkways that lead to these rooms, in fact most often made up wells, which are taken as entrances to the pyramids, are only water inlets to feed the wells.

As decently only one burial chamber is enough for a pyramid, when archaeologists have found rooms in addition they were baptized antechambers that like the rooms hide ALL a vertical well.

There is, however, in this series an apparent anomaly, the first Djoser’s pyramid, escaping the “norm”, it SHOWs 11 vertical wells, aligned on the eastern side and a central well, which has been dubbed “well” by the archaeologists and not “room” because its ceiling is not corbelled vault.

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Illustration of a camouflage technique of the vertical well in the Meidum pyramid:

Gilles Dormion Jean Yves Verd’hurt Architectural study of the inner arrangement of the Meidum Pyramid. World Congress of Egypt Cairo, March-April 2000

what is visible today in the pyramid:

“burial” chamber and two small antechambers

What G.Dormion and JY.Verd’Hurt discovered:

Above the lintels used as ceilings with two volumes of section 2.65 x 2.1 m, located in the gallery of access of the main room, they found two “small rooms” with corbelled vault, whose base makes the same section and located exactly at the vertical of these “ante chambers”.

The function of a corbelled vault is to protect the volume below from the pressure of thousands of tons of stones placed above.

The geometry of the set is such that the 2 “holes” of 2.65 × 2.1 could not be less than 6.6 m deep, but making a corbeled vault to plug a deep hole of 6.6 m does not make sense, so there is a great height of stones at the top in this section and why not a well 33 m deep as in the pyramid of Djoser?

Like this for example:

Another fundamental “detail”: For the solidity of the structure the vaults were sufficient, the lintels placed below, had therefore no other function than to HIDE the vaults which testify to the refilling of the well just above.

This “camouflage” allowing to believe that chamber connected to the descent = burial chamber, all professional archaeologists have fallen into the trap and 99.9% of the amateurs with them.

But there is one small detail that is wrong, this room is 100% anonymous has none of the attributes of the Egyptian mortuary chambers, no sarcophagus not a single chunk of funerary furniture, and the antechambers didn’t provide as usual, the name and quality of the dead along graceful engravings showing how the life of the defunct was quite and good.

So, why bother to block and camouflage these vertical cylinders?

They give direct access to the real mortuary complex above!

If the great builders who have struggled so hard to build these wonders, piling up millions of stones, in projects of 20 years engaging the best of a kingdom, it was not for at the end to put the dead body of the king in these sad and bare rooms so easy to find, so easy to penetrate.

So try now even having found the wells, to dig a passage and climb in these cages filled with stones that are just waiting to fall on your head, crammed over tens of meters in height! These cages filled with stones provide a more effective protection than the three harrows that are found in the “room harrows” of the pyramid Cheops.

The maximum height of the stone lift is 20 m in the wells of the pyramid of Djoser, to lift the stones to the top, so it needs to have successive stages in height, but what do we find?

One floor in the pyramid of Djoser Height 60 m, miss two.

Three wells in the Meidoum pyramid, if the height module of the previous pyramid had been preserved, they would have been 5.

The red pyramid from this point of view is like Meidoum’s.

Two floors found in the Rhomboidal pyramid, are there three missing?

In the pyramid of Cheops 3 floors are visible that go up stones up to 80 m, it still lacks at least 2.

There is still a lot of things missing in the pyramids that deserve to be searched!

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The collapse of the filling of the Meidoum pyramid reveals to us the architectural existence of a central nucleus which gives us two indisputable informations:

The interior volumes are built in a masonry that originates on the base of the pyramid, says otherwise, the inner chambers and galleries do not rest on the filling stones but on a neat masonry that starts from the base.

Consequently, when at any height in the pyramid of Cheops there is a chamber or a gallery, we can be sure that this construction rests on a masonry which extends to the base.

We can see in Cheops pyramid that the interior volumes can go up to 60 m with 3 chambers and 4 galleries, it is curious that the archaeologists have been content to visit the only room found in the Meidoum pyramid which is at the height of the base then that the masonry extends up to 70 m in height.

Is this core masonry an innovation of Meidoum’s pyramid or a legacy of Djoser’s pyramid?

Conclusion,

All these pyramids belong to a series built on the same conceptual model physical and psychological, which has evolved over time towards more performance and more complexity keeping the same guiding principles.

The differences in configurations observed from one pyramid to another are indicative that there is still much to be found in the pyramids including ALL the mortuary apartments!