6- Site objectives

khufu just ascended the throne of Egypt when 40, he is no longer a chicken of the year, he participated with his 3 brothers in the administration of the kingdom, probably he was part of the expeditions of his father Snefrou to Lebanon and Sinai.

Elder of the siblings, he was destined to inherit the kingdom, his younger brother Nefermaat first vizier there had important functions, maybe there was as often rivalries to have the right to eternity? Maybe he had to “elbow up” to maintain his primacy? We’ll never know.

According to the Egyptologists he was 10 years old when his grandfather Houni was buried in his pyramid as a young child he saw the end of the building, he witnessed from A to Z the erection of the red pyramid (or bent?) In which he just buried his father Snefrou.

He received the education of a king and therefore initiated to all the secrets of the knowledge of the times, he knows what is possible and what is not, he knows the whole team of scientists and engineers who made the pyramid of his father, there is a great probability that upon his accession to power, the plans of his pyramid were already more than sketched, his location spotted, logistics supply of wood, copper, precious stones was already in place for the pyramid of his father, he only has to “put feet under the table”, the “free lunch” was served.

In his family they have a healthy life, they live a long time for the period, nevertheless at 40 years he knows he must do quickly to build his pyramid, no one is safe from a devastating tooth abscess, or of a bad hunting accident, the pyramid must be built quickly.

We are told that he chose Hemiunu, the son of Nefermaat, his younger brother as architect, his half-brother Ankhaf as project leader, both younger than him, and probably full of energy.

However Hémiunu will not survive the pyramid, he made his last breath in the nineteenth year of the reign of Cheops and the pyramid was not over yet if we believe the deciphering by P.Tallet papyri found on the site Waadi el-Jarf ancient port on the red sea of ​​copper supply logistics and precious stones of “Akhet Khufu” Cheops horizon, then given name to this pyramid.

According to P.Tallet, these documents testifying to an activity of supplying Turah’s quarry stones, date from the last years of the reign, it is therefore that the pyramid was not yet completed.

Thus, 20 years for the construction time of the pyramid is eligible.

In my study, the goal of the project is to deliver the pyramid in 20 years.

However, the operations of extraction and assembly of the building stones, do not come the day after the decision to start the work, it took time to choose the site to analyze its geology to validate the quarries, probe the bedrock to make sure of its stability, to go from sketches of plans, to final plans or more likely to a fonctionnal mockup aimed at giving the building instructions, to complete and finish the calculations of lifts which innovate compared to those of dad, to make models, prototypes, to test, to correct.

Soon it was necessary to start the construction of the city of the workers, its supply logistics with its port, the link with the Nile, the channel, the locks, the harbor basin …

Moving from the final design file, to the manufacturing file, not only the pyramid, but also the tools, then build up the tools, test them to move to mass production.

Then it was necessary to trace the first furrow which delimits the base of the pyramid, to carve the small hill which covers then this site, for at the same time to extract the first blocks, those of the base, the biggest ones, which for my study is the starting point for manufacturing operations and assembly blocks in series itself.

I evaluate the duration of this phase to 1/3 of the total delay of 20 years.

There will therefore remain 5,000 days to manufacture the pyramid itself.

In an arbitrary way, I take 12 hours of work a day, the average duration of the day in the year under the thirtieth parallel, and consider that the site worked 365 days a year, thus allocating 60,000 hours to make this mountain of stones.

By doing so I am aware of all the arbitrariness of these choices, nevertheless within +/- 3 years on 20 years, orders of magnitude are there and the nature of the problem to solve does not change, only the fine tuning can be questioned.

In my study there is another zone of approximation, the physical characteristics of the stones, which despite all the work that was done on this pyramid (and the others) remain unpublished, were they ever measured?

The density of the stones and their compressive strength directly determine the energy to be expended for extraction and elevation and have a direct influence on the workforce and therefore on the time.

I was therefore forced to taking for the stones the known characteristics of certain quarries extracting stones of the same composition, of the same geological nature.

However, specialists know well that on a given site, the rock is not homogeneous and one can have considerable variations of resistance from one place to another on the bedrock and probably even more for a different quarry . Nothing will replace the direct measurement!

Anyway, anyone who has had to lead large multi-year projects involving thousands of people (this is my experience) knows that any project has its hazards, that of this pyramid has had his own that we will never know .

So 5,000 days, 60,000 hours for the duration of the phase of extraction and assembly of blocks.

For large-scale calculations, it is customary to go through the notion of average block, which is an abstraction, but which makes it possible to grasp the large numbers in an easy to understand way.

What to take for average block in this pyramid?

F.Petrie who did an admirable job of measurements in this pyramid established all the heights of the 201 sitting still present which constitute the pyramid:

DistributionAssises

The average block should have a thickness of 0.7 m, having a volume of 1 M³ looks reasonable, so for the following I will give this block these dimensions height 0.7 m length 1.3 m, width 1.1 m, volume 1 M³ , weight 2.4 t.

The pyramid is made up of 4 essential parts, the base, the filling, the casing and the masonry of the rooms and corridors.

In terms of volume, this last part will be assimilated to the filling stones, this is an approximation which simplifies the calculations without distorting the reality.

For the casing which is the “skin” of the pyramid, I take a thickness of 2 m at the base and 1 m at the top, which gives a volume of skin of 106 000 M³ to withdraw from the total volume and to consider separately, because it is the object of a different process, the quarry being 20 KM further south of the Giza plateau on the banks of the Nile.

Finally the original rock mount on which the pyramid was erected was evaluated by Petrie at 6 m height and  140 m square, this volume spared to quarry out and assemble some stones.

This results in 2.4 million M³ for the filling blocks, ie 2.4 million filling blocks and 100,000 casing blocks.

It is obviously the number of filling blocks that size the bulk of the workforce to quarry out and assemble.

The average pace over 5,000 days will be 480 blocks per day of 12 hours so 40 blocks per hour, one block every 90 seconds.

This average daily rate of 480 average blocks will be the average production objective of the site.

An important aspect of the site is its energy balance:

Excavations in the workers’ city led to an estimate of between 1,600 and 2,000 of the number of “hard” workers.

These workers, the NFRW (hear neferou), “the young”, the “effective”, selected as a team of professional athletes today, well fed, well motivated. Intrinsically for a long time with daily repetition, they could deliver without burning out an average power of 80 W or an energy of 1 KWH per day.

The site therefore had a total “human” power of between 130 and 160 KW or a daily energy capacity of 1,600 to 2,000 KWH.

Raising 480 average stones of 2.4 t of 40 m consumes an energy of 125 KWH, which “cost” only 125 NFRW in average necessary staff, it was not the sea to drink!

But these stones had to be quarried out before making a trip of the order of one kilometer to reach their final location. Admittedly, in order to fix the idea that 20% of the workforce was doing something other than quarrying and moving the stones, there remained only between 1100 and 1400 NFRW for these two tasks, ie about 2.6 KWH per average block energy available for these two processes.

As we will see later, the builders had a very efficient method to quarry out the ready to use blocks, but it was nevertheless necessary to spend 2.4 KWH per block.

There was then only 0.2 KWH left to move the blocks from the quarry to their last place, an average path of 1 KM, which limits to 700 N the effort to move a 2.4 t stone horizontally. This is the equivalent of a coefficient of friction no more than 3%, which eliminates the use of sleds slipping on ramps to move stones, because then the coefficient of friction would have been of the order of 20%.

It can thus be seen from the outset that the job / resource energy balance of the site makes it feasible, provided that the builders have tools and methods that have an energy efficiency very close to ONE.

5- Seventh wonder of the world:

This pyramid is too much,
Everything is there, too tall, too big, too heavy, too precise, too perfectly executed, calculated, planned.
146 m height, 230 m base, volume 2.6 million M³ weight about 6.5 million tons.
The ratio of the height to the half base makes the famous fraction 14/11 which is the tangent of the angle that make the faces with the horizontal plane.
This value makes it that the circle which diameter is the height of the pyramid has the same perimeter than the 1/2 base.

Paraphrasing the RHIND papyrus which expressed that a 9 diameter circle as the same surface than a square of 6, a 14 diameter circle as the same perimeter than a square of 11.

Making it in royal cubits and dividing all the values by forty, the 1/2 base is 22, the eight is 7.

The 1/2 base perimeter is 22, the diameter 7 so the Egyptian π was 22/7 so to say 3 and a palm (the palm is 1/7 the cubit) missing the “modern” value for around 1/1000.

I’m not going to add to an incalculable number of speculations!

On the other hand it’s easy to find that the builders were pragmatic people look at it:

The ancien Egyptians used the SKD to mesure an angle the SKD is the cotangent of the angle. The SKD of the face with the plan is 11/14, multiplie all this by two 22/28.

28 was the smaller part of the royal cubit, called the digit and 22 is the sum of a double palm which is a subdivision ( 8 digits) of the cubit plus a great claw (14 digits) an other subdivision of the cubit.

At the end the SKD of the face with the horizontal is a double palm + a great claw to the cubit, that’s it!


The consensus estimates about 2.3 million number of blocks that constitute it.

Its casing, the skin of the pyramid, originally built with fine limestone from the quarry of Turah has almost completely disappeared except for 8 blocks at the base, its volume of about 90 000 M3 is could have been made 90 000 blocks, or 4% of the total number.

The pyramid rests on a knoll carved in the initial hill,  which is not flat, it comprises in its center a stump which was measured to 6 m height where it is visible whose base would be 170 m by 170 m. But unfortunately we will never know the real shape of this mount.

Its interior is particularly complex compared to other pyramids, it contains 3 known rooms, the underground cave, the lower chamber so-called of the queen’s, the upper chamber known as the king’s .

Each room is accessed by a corridor, descending for the underground chamber, which is 100 m long largely dug in the rock of the base, horizontal for the low chamber entirely masonry, the upper chamber communicates with the great gallery, through a passage called the room of the harrows, the great gallery is monumental  47 m long, 2 m wide, 8 m high inclined to around 26 ° ( its SKD is 2 exactly ) equipped with a magnificent corbelled ceiling.

From the descending gallery  one could have access to the great gallery by an ascending corridor of 37 m long also inclined to 26 ° if it had not been hermetically sealed by 3 blocks of granite.

The junction of these 3 corridors communicates with the bottom of the descending gallery by a narrow shaft called service well.

The lower chamber has a niche taken in the thickness of its wall, giving the east on a clear narrow corridor  long 5.5 m in a masonry, then dug long 10 m in the filling stones.

The entrance to the descending gallery is surmounted by a double chevron roof, of the same shape as the roofs of the lower and upper rooms.

Between the ceiling of the upper chamber and its roof is inserted on 13 m a stack of megaliths which weigh between 30 and 65 t each which constitute what is known as the “chambers of discharge”.

All these volumes are empty and bare, without painting, without engravings, and it is unlikely that the hollowed stone found in the upper chamber could have been the sarcophagus of a great king.

All these volumes are aligned on the same vertical plane whose axis is 7 m east of the axis of the pyramid.

The volume of the lower chamber is centered as well on the central east-west axis of the pyramid.

However there is an invisible part but present in the pyramid that supports all the volumes that I just described, it is a masonry which starts from the initial mount  and which goes up following the galleries.

This central masonry is oriented north-south it starts from the north base under the descending gallery, extends south under the ascending gallery, then under the horizontal gallery and the great gallery, then under the lower chamber, then under the upper chamber.

Its southernmost end is under the upper chamber 16 m south of the vertical axis of the pyramid.

Its east end is a masonry that extends 5.5 m outside the wall of the lower chamber, which puts it 15 m from the central axis.

(My guess: this masonry houses the cage of the first stage lift as well as the pit and cage of the second stage. Its known western end is 3 m west to the central axis.)

In all this basement as a section of 18 m wide and 130 m long culminating at 42 m height under the base of the upper chamber.

We will probably never know the exact configuration of this basement we are only sure of one thing, it exists!

It is certainly not an assembly as neat as that of the casing stones, but much more precise than that of the filling stones, because if this base moves (and it moved despite the precautions taken) the rather fragile structures which are at above can crack, which would be unfortunate and that happened in the upper room.

I have just briefly described what we have found so far in this pyramid.

Arriving at the end of this study we will have discovered many other important elements.

First, the exact location of the mortuary complex that remains to be unveiled.
All the water circuit and elevator shaft of the 3 stages visible.
The 2 stages of elevators to go to the top.
The real entrance to the pyramid and the access gallery that leads to the loading point of the lifts.
After reading this study, some archaeologists will have to work! it’s my hope.

4- Archeological evidences

The presence in the great pyramids of hydraulic hoist is the true “revelation of the pyramids”, it is necessary to provide evidences for this.

Conversely,

Supporters of the “consensus” of archaeologists that can be summarized as follows:

  • Room connected to a descending corridor = mortuary chamber of the king
  • Lifting of the blocks = ramps.
  • Moving the blocs = sledges on lubricated paths

For decades, they have not been able to provide the slightest physical proof of the slightest beginning of a visible ramp on the ground outside, as well as into the pyramids.

As far as the mortuary chambers are concerned, they have tried hard to circumvent the counter-evidence of these bare and  anonymous chambers without the slightest trace of a piece of funerary furniture or chunk of a royal dead body ever found.

At that time the traditional vault didn’t had any engraving on its walls, but the antechamber which was inside the mastaba contained the name and quality of the defunct in fine engravings very often paint plus a statue frequently as it was the case for Hemiunu allegedly architect of the great pyramid and AnkHaf of the Khufu brotherhood.

In the 7 great pyramids none of that, ALL the rooms and galeries are bare, somme archaeologists pretend that it was the duty of the outside temple to show the memorial, unfortunately they are so ruined if not totally erased that no evidence was visible. As a consequence the attribution of a pyramid to a king is much more a quiz than a documented statement.

The 4 first pyramids didn’t have a sarcophagus inside, the upper chamber of the pyramid of Cheops so called “royal chamber” has a hollowed block in granite that has been called a sarcophagus because it has the possible dimensions, however G. Dormion in his book “la chambre de Chéops” made the demonstration that this chamber was a fake. So why the 2 following where a sarcophagus was found would be genuine funerary chambers?

It is highly unlikely that those powerful kings putting to work the best of a kingdom in a 20 years action, piling stones by millions, to build this gigantic monument designed to stay for eternity in order to protect his dead body against all possible plundering and imprint in it for ever his memory, at the end was put in those anonymous chambers so easy to unveil and to access!

AT the end:

Ramps, no traces, rooms + descending galleries there are only counter-evidences and yet, strangely they made a consensus to promote and defend these untruths.


On the other hand

All that counter evidences put forward that the king’s chamber is highly likely elsewhere in the pyramid.

I pretend that there was one time water in the visited volumes in the 7 great pyramids, water that sustained submersible floats that raised the stones vertically even the heaviest in the center of the pyramids.

Who says water plus float says vertical well <=> which says vertical well says water.

Contrary to the consensus, to support my analysis I bring the direct and indirect evidences that there are pits still in the pyramids and all can be checked:

Pyramid of Saqqara:

With regard to float lifts, the pyramid of Saqqara brings two direct material proofs:

Djoser-puits

The presence under the base of the pyramid of 11 wells 33 m deep under the east face whose vertical plane cuts the masonry of the pyramid in the second degree, 20 m high.

The presence in the center of the pyramid, of a large vertical well 29 m deep, which also contains the ballast which stabilized the float, is that JP. Lauer sells us as the king’s mortuary chamber.

Was it 4500 years later that there is still water in these wells?

Pyramid of Meidum:

G. Dormion and JY. Verd’hurt discovered, concealed by lintels forming the roof of the horizontal corridor, small vaulted “chambers” just above rectangular mini-vestibules in the same corridor.

Meidoum9
Crédit Fr. Monnier

This is evidence of deliberate action on the part of the builders to conceal two vertical shafts that have been plugged by a corbelled vault.

This discovery of Dormion / Verd’hurt makes it possible to understand that each time we discover a chamber with corbelled vault in a pyramid, we are in the presence of a well or a cage blocked and disguised as a room.

The “burial chamber” is also the lower part of a cage, its floor is not the original rock, it is the result of the filling of the underground well opening at the zero level, its corbelled vault is the result of the filling the cage. She was left prominently to simulate a burial chamber.

Red pyramid:

Archaeologists see a funeral chamber preceded by two antechambers. But by getting closer to what we know about the pyramid of Meidoum, we immediately recognize the same pattern, only here, instead of concealing the closed cages they left them prominently as antechambers with a magnificent vault.

Three pits are visible in this pyramid.

Bent pyramid:

The lower chamber and the upper chamber are the result of two blocked wells, the lower chamber is flanked by two smaller volumes a mysterious pit to the south and an antechamber to the north, this antechamber as the same width than the passage conducting to it, the passage is caped by lintels, the antechamber by a corbelled vault.

Antichambres2
Credit Fr. Monnier

If this antechamber was originally a chamber it ought to be covered by lintels like the passage, not a corbelled vault. This antechamber was a pit during the pyramid building, blocked and transformed in antechamber at the end.

monnier-Ch-Haute
Credit Fr. Monnier

This pattern applies also to the 2 small chambers with a portcullis inside blocking the horizontal passage leading to the upper “king chamber”. Those mini chambers are 0.8 m width, but instead of being covered by lintels, they also get a corbelled vault. False mini chambers, real blocked pits.

Pyramid of Cheops:

There is one direct evidence and two indirect proofs:

Direct proof, the room of the harrows:

CH-Herses

This room is a portion of the third stage pit, it gives the section of the pit and its construction technology

Niche of the lower chamber:

Maçonnerie vue sud

The presence behind the niche of the lower room of a corridor 1 m width 1.7 m height 5.5 m long covered by lintels, that was blocked by the builders themselves and partially cleared by who knows since.

1.7 m height this corridor was designed for a human circulation, turns north in its middle blocked as well, giving access from the lower chamber, to a masonry 5.5 m deep to the east, of an unknown dimension to the north leaning against the eastern wall of the lower chamber.

G. Dormion in his book “la chambre de Chéops” released 15 years ago, described in details all this, but to date no archaeological research was conducted there.

Worthless for the “consensus”?

In the pyramid any masonry present at any level goes to the base.

This masonry could contain the first and second stage pits (brown color on the image).


 

It is crystal clear, the constant and systematic actions on behalf of the builders to hide these vertical volumes, testify that it was important for them that these devices will not discovered later with the exception of the pyramid of Saqqara for another reason.

Despite this, these wells have been partially discovered in 4 of the 5 pyramids cited, but until then never identified as such by archaeologists.

They have been discovered by professional or amateur qualified archaeologists, but these prisoners of consensus have missed out on the true meaning of their discoveries.

Clogging in the center of the eastern face of the Cheops pyramid:

Entrée-Porte

Finally, my recent discovery of traces of clogging in the center of the eastern face of the pyramid, at ground level, which after additional analyzes, could provide irrefutable proof of the existence of an access gallery (and not a conduit water like the other “entrances”) which the real entrance to the pyramid for stones and men.

Granite plugs:

Bouchon
Credit G. Dormion

The presence of a cork made of three blocks of Granite in the ascending gallery makes sense when there is water in the pyramid, every one can check that the last plug is closely adjusted to seal the gallery. Otherwise they stay a mystery.

 

Al Ma’mûn Passage:

percée-Al Mamoun

In this same place, the fact that there is a passage attributed to Sultan Al Ma’mûn, attests that the precision of the place of this carving, owes nothing to the tiny chance of falling blind to 1 m on 200 m front in the right place, but to the fact that the sultan found a conduit to follow. This conduit is an indirect proof of existing water in the pyramid.

Trial passage:

Trial passage
Credit F. Petrie

The obvious presence of this vertical shaft in the “trial passage” which is a mock-up of some corridors of the pyramid. It was (as usual) filled with stones but badly!

 

3- Water inside the pyramids

This chapter summarizes and justifies one of the founding hypotheses of the study.

To understand the pyramid of Cheops we must begin by understanding the first pyramid, that of Djoser.

Before this pyramid, kings were buried in rooms at the bottom of a well covered with a mastaba certainly in the shape of a pyramid, but small size made of a stack of all coming covered with a stone facing. Structures today completely devastated of which there remain only scattered ruins.

Suddenly a king finds a way to stack millions of heavy stones on a great height, building around the pyramid a gigantic mortuary complex in finely cut and adjusted stones.

It is therefore that there has been technical innovation at the service of an architectural innovation:

Ability to extract quarries and finely cut stones by the millions.
Ability to move and raise very high “easily” very heavy blocks.

The tool used has disappeared, but it remains in the pyramid an important trace that is easy to decode:

It is under the base of the pyramid 11 wells 33 m deep, section 3.5 M² aligned on the east face, their vertical plane cuts the pyramid 20 m higher in the second degree.

A twelfth well of section 49 M² depth 33 m is located in the center of the pyramid it contains in its center on its bottom placed on a small dyke a volume in granite having a circular opening closed off by a granite cork, that the archaeologist Jean Philippe Lauer declared being the Djoser’s vault.

Another identical well is 300 m farther south giving free air and escaping the pyramid, connected to the first by a horizontal duct at -33 m.

These wells recall the earlier tombs tradition, but they do not play the function, because the volumes in which these wells open can be accessed by a north descending gallery and a south corridor for the central well and 4 descending galleries for the wells to the east. They therefore had not the function of accessing the rooms.

In addition the central well CONTAINS the “vault” instead of being the access and with a arch that makes the ceiling so it was empty and not filled according to tradition.

Despite appearances we are no longer in the previous funeral tradition, but in an architectural revolution allowed by a technical innovation.

For a civilization that has a long maritime and fluvial tradition, it is logical to think that these wells that otherwise had no functional utility were there to hold water which in turn could lift a float, a kind of heavy duty utility vessel loaded with stones, designed for a vertical path and not horizontal as usual.

The principle of operation is very straightforward, the float is a waterproof hull whose deck is caped by a long rod and stabilized below by a weighted keel.

Here is the functional picture as it could have appeared while the pyramid was at zero level, one of the dug wells containing the float was filled with water to the base to reveal the stem in all its scope .

This illustration is that of an elevator of the oriental wells while it floats unloaded.

We can detail the tray carries loads which ends

The stem resting on

The watertight hull supporting the rod whose “bridge” is flush with the water level in the well.

A long keel always immersed in the water extends the hull downwards.

Which contains a very heavy ballast very probably in granite in lower part which will stabilize this ship whose load is very high above the bridge.

This is one of the 11 water elevators that could have been found in the eastern wells at the beginning of the site.

Above the base which is the high point of the well, there is a height of 20 m of piled stones which form the body of the pyramid, it will be the maximum range of the float and the length of the stem.

Below the base there is 33 m of well depth, so that the float makes a run of 20 m it must have exactly 13 m length between its hull bridge and the low point of its keel containing the ballast, 13 m will be his “draft” to use a term of naval architecture.

To vary the lifting height it was enough to gradually raise the water level of the wells according to the height of the course, the pyramid being built in successive horizontal layers (as today works a 3D printer!)

To fix ideas:

To raise a load of stones of 0.6 t on a maximum height of 20 m, the float would have had a total length of 33 m including 20 m of stem, a section of 1.7 x 1.7 m of 3 M², sliding without rubbing on the edges, first in the well which is 1.9 x 1.9 m, and finally in a cage of the same section which crosses the course whose maximum height would have been 20 m. The moving set weighing 25 t including 14 t of ballast.

With a load of 660 Kg KG placed on the plateau, the float is sunk and rests at the bottom of the well, the plateau is at the base of the pyramid.

With a load of 630 kg on the plateau the mobile unit is in static equilibrium and weighs zero in the water, it remains motionless.

With 600 KG on the platform the mobile unit weighs 30 KG less than the Archimedes thrust and rises with a very small acceleration, it will rise slowly taking 1 minute to make a 20 m path.

However for this elevator to work with such precision there is a condition to fulfill:

As the rod rises, its immersed volume decreases and also decreases the Archimedes thrust received by the float. In order for the float to continue its elevation, this reduction due to the stem must be exactly compensated by an increase in the immersed volume of the hull, which, whatever happens, is always entirely immersed in water. This condition will be achieved by leaving in the hull a certain volume of air which increases when the float rises because the pressure to which this air is subjected decreases.

Link to the model proof of concept

Link to the float calculation note

The 11 wells under the pyramids could fill up to the 20 m level, it is obvious that there must be in the pyramid two additional floors to reach 62 m in height.

To date there is no trace of these wells, which is normal since buried in the heart of the pyramid and never searched.

These wells on the eastern side were enough to fill the pyramid, if it is a twelfth central well of a much larger section 7 x 7 m or 49 M², it was that he had the task of raising to 20 m height much larger stones up to 15 t and for what purpose if not to build, the (real) funeral apartments of the king.

Nestled in the heart of the pyramid these rooms had to withstand the pressure of 40 m of stones and therefore had to receive ceilings made of large stones similar to those that can be observed in the following pyramids.

The exposed granite construction placed on a wall and dubbed “vault” of Djoser could have made the ballast of the float built in this well following the principles described above, leaving the possibility to raise to 20 m stones weighing the order 15 t.

No ramps, no sledges, no ropes, the operators had only to climb on the course by stairs or ladders, then let down on the float plateau, to raise a load corresponding to the sum of their weight. The energy efficiency of this water lift is very close to ONE.

It is unthinkable that such a simple and effective principle was not retained for the following pyramids!

The innovation stay in three points:

The king is at the top center of the pyramid the place most surrounded by large stones, without access. And not at the bottom where it was too easy to find.

A powerful hydraulic lift principle raises the stones in the pyramid.

A staging in the basement allows “visitors” to believe that they are in the death chamber, but completely cleaned by looters.

Following pyramids:

It would be totally improbable that the following pyramids did not renew these three revolutionary concepts, but the explosive increase in size, 150 years later that of Cheops will be 8 times the volume of the first, will only have been made possible by a continual improvement in the performance of tools and methods used to obtain and handle blocks that are becoming heavier.

Meidum, red pyramid, and bent: where are the wells? so visible in the pyramid of Saqqara.

Too compromising for the safety of the mortuary complex of the king, they have been blocked and made up either in “funeral” rooms, or in antechambers, the general rule is that any room or antechamber with a corbelled vault was a well blocked and made up, when he was not concealed behind a lintel like in the pyramid of Meidum.

The rule changes with the pyramids of Cheops and Chephren, because the floats have changed their mode of operation and the “chambers” have become reservoirs of water for the functioning of the floats, the corbelled vaults have given way to double slope roofs, the wells became totally invisible except for one, that of the upper chamber of the pyramid of Cheops, a portion of which is disguised as the room of the harrows.

It should be understood here that the rooms of the Cheops pyramid were built at the same time as the course rose, which allows these double slope roofs that protrude from the walls, while the rooms of the previous pyramids, Meidum, red and bent, were initially wells throughout the construction, which were capped with an arched vault at the end, king buried.


1- My strength is my weight

The ancient Egyptians have left us nothing in writing about the state of their knowledge when it comes to physics and particularly about the laws that govern movement on earth.

The hieroglyphs that have come down to us being mostly extracted from tombs or from temple engravings, are of mystical, poetic nature or the idealized description of everyday life.

It would be futile to look for the theory of relativity in Einstein’s coffin or Newton’s laws of gravity in his grave!

Faced with this absence of texts, we have tended to consider that their knowledge could not be superior to that the Greeks expressed through their most famous scholars like Aristotle, Ptolemy and Archimedes, to name but three, all formed in Egypt.

But this is a serious mistake, the ancient Egyptians also had their “century of enlightenment” and of the laws of nature, knew more than we imagine today. The 7 great pyramids bear witness to this.

The writings of the Greeks served as a scientific viaticum to the civilizations of the Mediterranean basin and northern Europe until the sixteenth century when a Polish monk, Copernicus, put the sun in the center of the universe and consequently the earth and planets moving around the sun, something that had to be explained by introducing the notion of gravity, a notion reformulated a century later by Galileo and finally put into mathematics by Newton in the eighteenth century. As a result, we have tended to deduce that the ancient Egyptians knew nothing at all concerning gravity.

The existence of a very precise calendar (which would still work today) can convince us that the ancient Egyptians had a good level of knowledge in astronomy.

Who says astronomy says mathematics.

A feeling that turns into certainty when we see the very precise orientation of Cheops’ pyramid, the polar star of the time we call Thuban today was not unknown to them but at the same time not quite exactly pointing to the true north.

The perfection and balance of their monuments leave us in no doubt about their knowledge of geometry, static equilibrium and physical measurement techniques.

The size of the lintels protecting narrow corridors, their double-pitched roofs and their corbelled vaults to protect larger volumes, all these devices still intact after 4,500 years of stay, may lead us to believe legitimately that they knew a means of calculating: and the stress = the weight that a pile of stones can apply and the resistance of the materials = what a block of stone could sustain without getting broke, because the solution used varied according to the constraint applied:

Narrow corridor < 1.2 m => lintel, corridor >1.2 m or room => roof or vault.

Having built and navigated boats of all kinds, we can be certain that they had at least an empirical knowledge of the so-called “Archimedes” principle, who, having studied at Alexandria, could very well have inherited from the Egyptians.

Nothing is known of their “scientific” knowledge of the fall of bodies, that is, the laws of gravity and inertia of the masses.

However, we can lend them easily, and this will be my case, at least a knowledge part empirical and part theoretical in this area, because from the pyramid of Djoser to that of Mykerinos, they have not been able in nearly 200 years to carve, transport and pile up 30 million tons of stones, without knowing anything about gravity or inertia.

The builders realized that the eternal forces of nature around us were available to carry out their work as long as they knew enough about it and submitted to it.

Water is elusive but well understood and well used, it can lift a float capable of vertically raising any stone, even the heaviest of megaliths.

A mass set in motion in a controlled way becomes a force as big as its weight and at the same time a reservoir of energy which it will nevertheless be necessary to refill.

The force is in the nature: quiet it can be an obstacle: like a pond, a stone too heavy to move, but when it is unleashed in a storm or an avalanche better not to be there!

Domesticating the force of nature, making it an ally, was the secret of of the pyramids’s builders .

If, as in ALL the theories presented so far, they had been satisfied with a static and direct use of the weak human force to extract and move the stones, the pyramids would never have been built.

Throughout this study, the reader will see the repetition of the same basic scheme:

The weight of a mass makes the force, the men produce the energy.

The force is generated by the gravity, a moving mass, the fall of a body, the oscillation of a pendulum, or the buoyancy of Archimedes the water raising a float

The energy comes from the man in the form of his potential energy previously acquired by climbing on a height, thus exchanging his muscular energy against the potential energy of gravity, then released to a moving mass simply by making a controlled fall on it with it.

The power station of the site was simply the kitchens of the workers’ city!

There was energy conservation in the movement everywhere, from potential to kinematic and vice versa. The kinematics eliminate friction as much as possible.

This dynamic mastery of the force of nature had a requirement, which will be reflected in the whole of this study: Accuracy in execution, not only in the dimensions and orientations, but also in the operating modes.

The operators were weighted to weigh exactly known in advance, the loads had an adjusted weight using ballast, the execution times were rhythmic, the forces exerted were known, the energies delivered exactly measured, the amplitudes of movement adjusted.

The numbers were everywhere.

Nothing was improvised, everything was fixed in advance.

Nevertheless, there remains for me an unresolved mystery, how could men, whose information support out of their brain was only speaking or the papyrus, knew how to record and communicate on such a long period of construction, with such precision, a so huge quantities of information about designs and execution instructions?

How to control the storage, classification and dissemination of information as complex as precise to thousands of performers, some of which were 1000 km from the monument, with an effectiveness attested by the success of the project, using only these means so basics as information processing?