1- Making short a long story

Once we understood that the functional justification of such giant constructions was to protect in their CORE the remains of the king and not to cover a vault in the basement, it remains to understand HOW their builders have given themselves the means to build such a huge monument. The builders of the 7 great pyramids titanic works  out of reach of the only human force , could not meet their challenge without getting the help of a gigantic force, unlimited, never ending, existing everywhere for free,  the force of gravity and its complement the anti-gravity what is the thrust of Archimedes.

The nature bring the force, the humans the energy of their body to control it.

Without any vanity on my part, it is simply a fact, this study is THE ONLY one to take into account  these two forces  and the energy that had to be produced to build the pyramids. In an era now forgotten, where the only energy available was that of the “hard worker” whose average daily energy production was of the order of ONE KWH to resume a unit that is familiar to us.

This study did, which had never been done: to check that the limited number of workers from 1,600 to 2,000 individuals by the accommodation capacity of the workers’ city at the foot of the Giza plateau, was sufficient to build the great pyramid.

Proponents of the consensus, advocate that a Neolithic tool has produced the pyramids, stone axes (or worse copper chisels!) to quarry out the blocks. Sledges sliding on ramps greased with mud to transport them. Calculations, however simple to make,  show clearly that with such means it was impossible to keep the 20-year time frame.

Conversely, some authors, sometimes archaeologists, have INVENTED out of nothing without ANY archaeological evidence, a work force varying from 10,000 to 100,000, in accordance only to their ideas of the process of making pyramids.

Making short a long story, below succinctly described the 4 strategic challenges identified by the builders of the pyramids, the reader will be able to access all the details of the demonstrations from the summary.

  • Raise up to 146 m tall, stones using water in pits.
  • Extract quarries stones by the millions.
  • To make the stones travel one million cumulative kilometers.
  • Put the king safe for eternity.

1- Water lifts

The secret of the 7 great pyramids is unveiled from the outset by the first stone pyramid ever built that of King Djoser in Saqqara.

This pyramid attributed to Imhotep, “modest” in size, carries in it all the concepts that will be declined in various forms more and more sophisticated in the 6 other great pyramids:

  • Quarry out, transport and elevation of stones by millions with the help of gravity coupled to water push.
  • Security sphere whose center is home to the mortuary complex of the king.
  • Staged “vault” to discourage the “visitors” of the future to look further.

We will discover below the method of raising stones using floats in water.

Under the pyramid we find no less than 12 vertical wells:

I can not understand why archaeologists and in particular Jean Philippe Lauer who spent 70 years of his life exploring and restoring this site NEVER speculated that these wells may have contained water to lift floats raising stones.

Yet 11 wells of 33 m depth are located under the eastern face of the pyramid, 20 m under the second degree

Egypt at that time was already a river and maritime power, the boat found disassembled in a pit of the pyramid of Cheops testifies to an excellent control of the marine carpentry.

Put in these 11 wells of 33 m depth and 3.5 M² section a 33 m long float such as the one below, waterproof and submersible:

Submersible Float Type Saqqara

Now lets say how it works:

The multi-millennial experience has proved that a “modest” pyramid size like the first one (and the last one = Mykerinos’) was big enough to protect the king placed in its core with 40 m of stones up, 40 m from each side and 20 m below ready to fall on your head. Provided that the “psychological” defense line that reinforces the physical one was well designed, which was the case.

The consensus not to seek the kings attests.

Would it be the belief that a larger size would increase the odds of survival in the afterlife, or the manifestation of an ego that needs to express itself in the funerary monument?

Still, the size of the pyramids has continued to increase until the paroxysm of the Cheops pyramid:

Pyramid R & D had to “deliver” even more efficient, faster solutions to extract the stones by millions, transport them and raise them so that within a “reasonable” time of about twenty years, we could build pyramids more and more voluminous.

There is a ratio of 8, an order of magnitude! between the volumes of the pyramid of Cheops and the Djoser’s.

Examination of the following pyramids shows a recurrent layout in which there are rooms connected to descending galleries.

Meidoum Room and shaft Credit Layman’s Guide

But where are the wells?

They were blocked and made up into chambers,

but in here rediscovered by G. Dormion and JY. Verd’hurt

Meidoum “antechambers” Credit Frank Monnier

In the pyramid of Meidoum, there were two wells morphed into “antechambers” that:

  1. Were blocked at the top and closed at the bottom by a vault
  2. Vault concealed by lintels that have no mechanical function
  3. Filled with stones in the bottom
  4. Masked by the pavement on the floor of the horizontal gallery.

The “burial chamber” is also a clogged well, but left prominently on purpose.

The pyramid of Saqqara was built with 11 wells in parallel whose operating cycle was about 2 minutes per lift.

This relative slowness was due to the large mass of the moving assembly brought by the ballast.

By having the float guided by the walls of the well and cage, the builders removed the stabilizer ballast, and substantially replacing it by stones to lift improved performance in a ratio of 4.

Creating the second generation submersible float used in all the following pyramids.

But the performance of this float was not enough to build the pyramid attributed to Cheops with its monstrous megaliths of 65 t to lift to 60 m of the base.

This new float generation no longer sinks, in its permanent oscillation whose amplitude goes up to 33 m it moves a large volume of water which requires in the circuit tank chambers having a large surface.

So there were two principles of floats, the  submersible float   generation one and two and the ultimate oscillating float . 
In the pyramid of Cheops, at the level of  the upper chamber , there is “the room of the harrows” which is a vestige disguised of the well of this stage. This room gives us two important informations: the well manufacturing technology and its section therefore that of the float and the ratio between the surface of the free water in the chamber and the section of the float.

This hydraulic scheme is exclusive to the 7 great pyramids, none of the pyramids that were built by dozens thereafter used it.

The stones arriving at the center of the course under completion, were distributed horizontally, the pyramid was build course up after course, the last course achieved , the pyramid was completed.

There was a price to pay:

To lift the stones, it was necessary to give energy to the floats whatever the generation used.

The method used was very simple, if the stones were lifted to the course by the elevator, to get there, the men took the stairs or the ladders along the outer face of the pyramid.

There was exactly (with small losses by friction) as much weight of men as stones that rose to a given height in the pyramids. For a ton of stone lifted to 20 m, a ton of operators had previously ascended this height using their arms and legs.

  • Their muscular expenditure turned into potential energy by arriving at the course level.
  • This potential energy was transferred to the float by lowering on it,
  • In turn the float lifted by the water yielded to the stone the energy acquired to raise it to the height of the course.
  • The stone arriving on the course had acquired for eternity the potential energy that the operators had created with the sweat of their brows, then yielded to the float.
  • The global efficiency of the operation is very close to ONE.

Raising the average 2.5 t stone to the gravity center height in the Cheops pyramid consumed at least 0.25 KWH of energy.

Working on the float the average worker, able to produce 1 KWH a day, could raise an amazing 4 blocks weighting 2.5 t a day.

The average need for the pyramid of Cheops was to build up the equivalent of 480 blocks per day, with this elevator a team of 120 people would have been enough!

2- The greatest challenge of the pyramids was not the (easy) lifting of stones, but their (busy) quarrying out.

If raising the average stone to the center of gravity consumed 0.25 KWH , quarrying out it required a minimum energy of about 2.7 KWH, ten times more.

They had to dig about 15 cm width 1 m deep furrows in the bedrock in order to free the blocks, provided, however, that powerful tools were used and not dare to make it using neolithic axes or brass chisels held at the ends of their arms.

If a team of 120 people could raise 480 stones a day, they had to put in an order of magnitude more in the quarries to extract the millions of filling blocks .

It was therefore necessary to mobilize in the quarries on the plateau the bulk of the personnel devoted to the pyramid.

To devote the minimum of energy to dig the furrows around the blocks, it was necessary that these furrows are narrow, of the order of 15 cm wide, a stone found in the tomb of Queen Khentkawe gives us the secret of the “industrial” extraction of stones.

This stone is not a “bearing stone” nor a pulley embryo, as its discoverer, the Egyptian archaeologist Selim Hassan, believed in the 1930s, but the unitary tooth of a blade of very simple and efficient cutting blade .

Here again the ancient Egyptians combined gravity with the help of a heavy copper blade supporting the cutting edge which was moved by a heavy pendulum which weighed on the blade and made it to move horizontally in an forth & back movement driven by its oscillations.

This tool has disappeared from the surface of the earth but left its mark, as here on the pavement north of the pyramid Cheops:

Trench pavement north Cheops courtesy AERAgram

3- There was also a mobility challenge for the stones:

On the site of the pyramid of Cheops the stones have traveled the earth-moon distance every 5 years and turn around the earth every six months!

Do you think it reasonable that they were able of such an achievement simply by dragging the stones on heavy sledges slipping on wet clay or wooden logs that get in the way or crash under the weight of the stones?

It is not thinkable.

“bizarre” stones of all sizes found in the thousands of museums of Egyptology classified indiscriminately under the heading “weight”, unveil their secret solution.

It must be foolish to make a “simple weights” in such a complex way, a segment of sphere placed on a truncated cone! A simple square one would have done a better deal.

The truncated cone is made to find room in a housing, the sphere segment to roll and pivot.

By distributing these identical stones, on a cylindrical support, they obtained inexpensively, with the technology of the time, bearings that roll-rotate very  efficiently.

In addition to their low resistance to advancement, these rollers remain stable, even on a steep slope which is very convenient for distributing on slopes and securing when thousands of blocks dangerous by their weight clutter a site.

I propose using these rollers, not by placing them directly under the loads to be transported, which works well, but suffers from the inconvenience of having to handle the rollers that escape out of the sledge, but by placing them in autonomous skates which replace advantageously the wheels they didn’t used.

As well as mine wagons, the stones could circulate alone on their tracks, having been launched by accelerating slopes.

Taking advantage of the gravity force:

From the cutting of the stone to the transport-elevation of the blocks: Everything in the building site of the pyramid is based on the smart exploitation of the force of gravity, which is what made them so successful.

A very simple but very useful use was the pendulum truck, a kind of universal motor of antiquity :

A weight held by a rope hanging from a frame.

The operators just “swing” on it

Pendulum pushers passed the 8% ramp that connected the Nile Plain to the foot of the pyramid stones that came from the quarries of Turah or Aswan.

4- Put the king safe for eternity.

Having understood that the stones were lifted through wells in the center of the pyramid and finding that these wells were steadily blocked and made up, it is not difficult to infer that at a certain height in the pyramid is still the mortuary complex, kind of bunker of an unknown size made of big blocks, most probably in granite and waterproof, because eternity does not fit with humidity.

When we reach it we will find this time that they are equipped with an antechamber with all the Egyptian mortuary decoration, paintings, engravings that contends the name and quality of the king resting in his sarcophagus in his vault next door. May be some surprising objects or informations could came out of this.

To date, there are (at least) 7 intact bunkers in the 7 pyramids in the state where they were left on the day of the burial.

This royal bunker is located in the center of the sphere of protection , the more protected place in the pyramid

Experience has shown that a large pyramid made of blocks of stone is unremovable, even the smallest, that of Mykerinos has withstood an attempt of this kind.

It is better not to go through wells filled with stones over 30 m or more above your head, how to remove them without receiving them on the head? This is an obstacle which is more dissuasive than the three stone harrows weighing 2.5 tons each in the chamber of the harrows of Cheops.

But, belt and shoulder, when we take a one-way trip for eternity, we must imagine that in the distant future men can have means otherwise powerful than those of the moment who could come to the end of such a pile of stones .

It is here that the genius of the builders gives full measure, in 4,500 years if the technique has evolved, the psychology of men will remain the same, a scenario that fooled today, dupe them tomorrow.

Time has proved them right  !

One day maybe, a more daring archaeologist than the others, taking the lead of a team, having read my study, or having made the same path, or all prosaically relying on the results of “scan pyramid” will get permission Egyptian authorities to isolate the great pyramid of the barnum disneyland style that have become these monuments for economic reasons that it is easy to understand.

The task will not be easy to say hello to the king, but not impossible, any fortress can be defeated, for Cheops I know his  Achilles heel !

But it is even easier, the archaeologist H. Vyse dug in the Pyramid of Mykerinos, a tunnel starting at 25 m in height and plunging into the pyramid to look for rooms in the basement, doing so he brushed against within a few meters the real mortuary complex. It would be enough for a team to resume work and dig a few meters horizontally towards the center of the pyramid, in a few days everyone would be fixed on the existence or not of this mortuary complex ! and if there is one here, there are six others waiting for us.

In the following study, the analysis of the Cheops pyramid is conducted in depth giving the least known detail, such as the tiny cave lost in the middle of the service well or the “trial passage” vestige forgotten on the plateau very next to the pyramid or even the shattered angle of the “sarcophagus” takes on a consistent logical meaning with the whole.

However the first 4 pyramids of Saqqara in South Dahshur are reviewed and deciphered in broad outline.

I suggest to the reader to start by knowing the hypotheses of the study.

I specify that this study is the only one that takes the construction site of the pyramid from the initial ground in the article the first 5 courses, and which details the treatment of the megaliths of the roof of the upper chamber since their transport on the Nile to their final put in place.

This study found the lost use of the pendulum motor which no trace exists anywhere, nor in the field, neither in the documents. It is through reasoning and calculation that this element has landed in the study, without it the builders would never have had the strength to dig furrows 17 cm wide by 1 to 2 m deep nor to move so easily blocks weighing up to 65 t.

A little like the planet Pluto discovered by the calculation before being seen, this pendulum engine is born from the calculation and the necessity imposed by the “small” workforce devoted to the site revealed by the excavations of the city of the workers.

The rolling skate has also disappeared forever, but the pivotal stones still found today by the thousands in museums bear witness to it.

Disappear forever is the fate common to all tools, DIY know it well.

Where are they? the tools that cut the helices of the giant ships of the nineteenth century, the tunnel boring machines of Mont Blanc? the tools of the Paris metro? … Today we find here and there still some photos, their files have already disappeared, what will remain in 4,500 years?

This is the fate of all specialized tools, once they have completed their missions, they are recycled, especially when they contain a metal as useful at that time (and still today!) as copper.